Blockchain Law

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Statutes: 15 U.S.C. 7001 - 7006
(State laws also apply to blockchain contracts and digital assets.)

Electronic Signature Laws

The federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act ("E-SIGN Act"), which was enacted in 2000, permits electronic signatures in certain business and consumer contracts to have the same legal enforceability as signed paper contracts. The E-SIGN Act states that "with respect to any transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce (1) a signature, contract, or other record relating to such transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or enforceability solely because it is in electronic form; and (2) a contract relating to such transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or enforceability solely because an electronic signature or electronic record was used in its formation." 15 U.S.C. § 7001(a).

In addition, the E-SIGN Act states that "If a statute, regulation, or other rule of law re-quires a signature or record relating to a transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce to be notarized, acknowledged, verified, or made under oath, that requirement is satisfied if the electronic signature of the person authorized to perform those acts, together with all other information required to be included by other applicable statute, regulation, or rule of law, is attached to or logically associated with the signature or record." 15 U.S.C. § 7001(g).

The E-SIGN Act does not apply to certain types of contracts and documents. The E-SIGN Act does not apply to wills, trusts, matters of family law, or commercial business transactions subject to the Uniform Commercial Code. See 15 U.S.C. § 7003(a). The E-SIGN Act also does not apply to (i) court documents, (ii) notices of cancellation or termination of utility services, (iii) a default under a credit or rental agreement for a primary residence of an individual, (iv) the cancellation or termination of health or life insurance benefits (excluding annuities), (v) a notice of a material failure or recall of a product that risks endangering health and safety, or (vi) any document required to accompany any transportation or handling of hazardous materials, pesticides or other toxic or dangerous materials. See 15 U.S.C. § 7003(b).

The broad definition of "electronic signature" in the E-SIGN Act includes signatures made by cryptographic keys in blockchain-based smart contracts. The E-SIGN Act defines "electronic signature" as "an electronic sound, symbol, or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record." 15 U.S.C. § 7006(5). The E-SIGN Act defines ‘‘record’’ as "information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form." 15 U.S.C. § 7006(9).

The District of Columbia and 47 states (excluding Illinois, New York and Washington) have enacted the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act ("UETA"). UETA is a more comprehensive statute than E-SIGN, and includes additional provisions governing such as issues as (i) the attribution of a signature to an individual, (ii) the effect of mistakes in electronic communications, and (iii) the admissibility of electronic records into evidence.

Instead of enacting UETA, Illinois has enacted the Electronic Commerce Security Act (5 ILCS 175/1). New York has enacted the Electronic Signatures and Records Act (N.Y. Stat Tech L §§ 301-309). Washington has enacted the Electronic Authentication Act (R.C.W. ch. 19.34).

State Blockchain Laws

Certain states have enacted additional laws that more specifically govern blockchain technology. Some of the state statutes are set forth below.

State Description of State Blockchain Law
Arizona PDF
Delaware On August 1, 2017, Sections 224 and 232(c) of the Delaware General Corporation Law were amended to expressly permit Delaware corporations to put stock ledgers on "distributed electronic networks or databases." PDF
Nevada PDF
Vermont PDF

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